5S is a systematic structured program implemented in industries to enhance productivity and turnover, creating a clean safe work space. This is Japanese technique simple inexpensive and easy to follow method.
Ceramic dolls making industry is situated at Vridhachalam in South India. They make ceramic dolls, idols of God, animals, birds for decorating the rooms in lavish bungalows and for traditional festivals. It is a family business. The owners of these industries are not rich, the infrastructure of these industries is poor with thatched roof and lot of space constraint. The ‘returns’ of their hard labour is meagre. The businessmen from big cities come and buy at a low price (with 10% profit) and sell at high price.
Government of India took up a project to implement 5S in these industries.
Objectives : The main objectives of 5S implementation were:
- Enhance productivity
- Enhance turnover
- Improve quality
- Enhance space utilization
- Improve working conditions : Clean and Safe
5S was invented in Japan after the 2nd World War. It consists of 5 words starting with ‘S’:
- 1S- Sort
- 2S- Set-in-Order
- 4S- Standardize
5S Implementation was done in the following manner:
First Step: Diagnostic Study of the Industry was conducted
The factory was visited and the present state was observed after the preliminary discussion. The preliminary information was collected such as: name of the industry, the proprietor, year of establishment, products manufactured, turnover.
The process of manufacturing was studied and a flowchart was prepared, placement of raw material, moulds, paints etc. was observed. The place for working was checked.
- Raw material was kept in a haphazard way. All types of raw material were dumped at a place.
- Paints, glaze, moulds and other tools were kept everywhere in the shop floor.
- Employees worked wherever they found place.
- Rejected items, empty gunny bags, wooden platform used for transporting dolls for next operation were dumped everywhere.
- There was no place for walking in the shop floor.
- Equipment, machinery were dusty and dirty.
- Systematic cleaning or maintenance of equipment was not present.
- Processes & flow chart did not exist.
- Searching for raw material, moulds, and paints was high.
- Shortage of space.
- Transportation & movement was difficult and a lot of time was wasted.
- No place for keeping finished goods.
- Working environment was dusty and dirty.
One Day Training on Awareness of 5S was conducted for all the employees. What is 5S? Their roles and responsibilities, benefits of implementing 5S were explained fully.
Third Step : Hand holding & implementation: This was done in 5 Stages.
In this all employees were asked to separate the ‘wanted’ & ‘unwanted’ items in their respective areas.
The ‘unwanted’ items were ‘Red Tagged’ and kept in a particular place.
The ‘Red Tag’ is a card giving details as: name of the item, why unwanted –broken, rejected, waste etc., what should be done: Rework/Rejected/ Reuse/Scrap
The ‘wanted’ items were segregated and kept in another place.
The ‘wanted’ items were classified as ‘raw material’, ‘tools’, ‘paints’ ‘glaze’ etc.
Activities in 2S;
- Designating a place for ‘Raw material’, ’Paints’, ‘Glaze’, ‘Packing & Dispatch’ etc.
- Labeling of the’ Designated’ place
- Displaying Name of the Process in the place allotted: ‘Molding’ ‘Spray Painting’ ‘Cleaning & Washing’ etc.
- Displaying Name of the sections for processes.
- Labeling of Machine & Equipment, Electrical Switches etc.
- “A Place for Everything in its Place” was ensured.
Activities Done: Developing & Following of:
- ‘Cleaning Schedule’ presenting the frequency of Cleaning : Daily, Weekly, Monthly etc. that will be followed for Machines & Equipment, Floor, Windows, Lights & Fans
- Machine & Equipment Cleaning Chart : Ensuring cleaning done regularly & certified by Supervisor/Manager
- Cleaning Chart for Utilities etc.
4S – Standardization
- Developing of ‘Standardization’ Chart
- Monitoring of the different activities and maintaining the ‘Standardization’ Chart regularly.
- Ensuring the activities in ‘Standardization’ chart followed and Action taken wherever needed
- Developing a methodology to ensure 5S implemented is maintained.
- Methodology developed to monitor employees to follow 5S
- Regular 5S Training to all employees
- Nomination of 5S Champions
- Motivation to ‘Active’ 5S followers.
- Conducting Audit regularly & action taken to mitigate the same.
Benefits of 5S Implementation:
The industries were highly benefitted by implementation of 5S. The benefits were:
- Extra Space Generated: 10% – Removal of ‘Unwanted’ items created space for utilization.
- Enhancement of Productivity by 15 %
- Reduction of ‘Search’ time: “A Place for Everything and everything in its Place “, reduced the time of searching for items (Raw material/Paint/Tools etc.)
- Reduction in travel time of employees within the shop floor; Gangways marked created easy access to the items and for movement of material.
- Reduction in ‘Downtime’ of Machines and Equipment by 15% – Regular cleaning of machines helped in detecting defects at early stage & repaired in short time.
- Increase in Morale of the employees
- Enhancement of Turnover by 10%